**3D and 2D Shapes Formulas**

### Introduction

Geometry is a fundamental concept in mathematics, and understanding shapes is crucial for problem-solving in various fields, including architecture, engineering, art, and design. In this article, we will explore the formulas for 3D and 2D shapes, which are essential for calculating perimeter, area, volume, and surface area.

### 2D Shapes Formulas

**Rectangle**

**Area**: A = l × w, where l is the length and w is the width**Perimeter**: P = 2(l + w)

**Triangle**

**Area**: A = (b × h) / 2, where b is the base and h is the height**Perimeter**: P = a + b + c, where a, b, and c are the sides of the triangle

**Circle**

**Area**: A = πr^2, where r is the radius**Circumference**: C = 2πr

**Square**

**Area**: A = s^2, where s is the side length**Perimeter**: P = 4s

**Rhombus**

**Area**: A = (d1 × d2) / 2, where d1 and d2 are the diagonals**Perimeter**: P = 4s, where s is the side length

### 3D Shapes Formulas

**Cube**

**Volume**: V = s^3, where s is the side length**Surface Area**: SA = 6s^2

**Rectangular Prism**

**Volume**: V = l × w × h, where l, w, and h are the length, width, and height**Surface Area**: SA = 2(lw + lh + wh)

**Cylinder**

**Volume**: V = πr^2h, where r is the radius and h is the height**Surface Area**: SA = 2πr(r + h)

**Sphere**

**Volume**: V = (4/3)πr^3, where r is the radius**Surface Area**: SA = 4πr^2

**Pyramid**

**Volume**: V = (1/3)Bh, where B is the base area and h is the height**Surface Area**: SA = B + (1/2)Pl, where P is the perimeter of the base and l is the slant height

In conclusion, understanding the formulas for 2D and 3D shapes is essential for solving various problems in mathematics, science, and engineering. These formulas enable us to calculate perimeter, area, volume, and surface area, which are crucial for designing, building, and analyzing shapes and structures.